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Negative ion products and materials

Q.01 - Does the negative ion count continue to rise as the negative ion generator continues to generate negative ions?
It does not continue to rise forever because the negative ions are neutralized by positive ions or absorbed by tiny particles such as dust and water droplets in the air.
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Q.02 - What should I check before I purchase a negative ion generator?
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Q.03 - I measured a tourmaline product but no negative ion was detected. Why?
Tourmaline generates negative ions when external force is applied to it or when temperature changes. You need to stimulate the tourmaline product, otherwise it does not generate negative ions.
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Q.04 - Does bamboo charcoal generate negative ions?
Bamboo charcoal generates negative ions when external force is applied to it or when it is blown by wind.
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Q.05 - Why do highly concentrated negative ions almost disappear when they go through a polyester vinyl pipe?
The electronic properties of the negative ions can change after they react with positive ions and dust in the pipe. They can also be neutralized by the positively charged inner wall of the pipe.
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Q.06 - What is an ideal negative ion generator?
There are some requirements to meet.
(1) The negative ions are detected not only at the blow off point but also a certain distance away from the generator. [e.g. xxxxxxx (pcs/cc) at 1m away]

For your reference, the international ion generation standard suggests 100,000 (pcs/cc)+ at 1m. We are not sure how effective this negative ion count is.

(2) The negative ions are dispersed to every direction.

(3) The generator is designed to minimize ozone production meeting safety standards and not to produce harmful nitrogen oxides (Nox).

(4) The amount of negative ion generation is adjustable.

(5) No maintenance work is required.
Practically, there is no negative ion generator that meets all the requirement. We suggest you should make sure the product you are about to purchase meet at least (1) and (2) in order to absorb negative ions but this information is not always found in the specification.Please also refer to How to choose the best negative ion generator (aka. ionizer).
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Q.07 - Why do negative ion counts decrease as you go further away from the generator?
Negative ion counts decrease because:
(1) They are neutralized by positive ions.
(2) They are absorbed by dust.
(3) They spread to where negative ion density is lower.
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Q.08 - Is there any relation between the distance from the negative ion generator and the measured density?
According to "Theory and practice of air ion" (co-authored by Kimura/Taniguchi), negative ion density is in inverse proportion to the square of the distance. This means it drastically decreases as you go further away.

Of course, it can be affected by positive ion density, dust in the air and other factors.
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Q.09 - What are the differences between tourmaline and other ores which generate negative ions?
You cannot simply compare tourmaline with other ores but some ores generate more negative ions than tourmaline does.

However, some of these ores emit gamma rays which exceed the natural level, so you have to consider how the rays affect your body during the long term use. Tourmaline does not emit such harmful rays which exceed safety levels.
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Q.10 - What are the differences between Tourmaline and Monazite which emits radiation rays?
Monazite contains thorium and uranium which are radioactive substances and it emits gamma rays. The gamma rays collide with molecules in the air to form negative ions. Tourmaline does not emit harmful rays which exceed safety levels. It is believed that tourmaline generates negative ions due to the piezoelectric or pyroelectric effect caused by the distorted crystallographic structure. Thus, negative ions are generated in different ways.
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Q.11 - Why is the negative ion count, which is measured 10 minutes after the ionizer is turned on, is higher than that of measured just after it is switched on?
It is possible that most of negative ions are neutralized by positive ions or absorbed by tiny particles for a while until the air is purified, thus these negative ions are not detected by the ion counter because they are no longer negative ions once neutralized or absorbed. This is why it takes several minutes before negative ions start to be detected.
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Q.12 - I measured the ion count generated by a negative ion generator and 30,000 (pcs/cc) were detected at 1.8m away from the generator. Is it possible to calculate the ion count detected at 1.0m?
According to "Medical domain - theory and practice of air ion" written by Prof. Kimura&Taniguchi of Hokkaido University School of Medicine, negative ion density is in inverse proportion to the square of the distance from the generator.
Therefore, the ion density at 1.0m can be calculated as:

30000(pcs/cc) * 1 / (1.0(m) / 1.8(m) * 1.8(m))2 = 97,200(pcs/cc)

This figure is just for your reference because it can practically be affected by the surrounding air, humidity and other factors.
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Q.13 - I heard "Negative ion generators that produce positive ions are not good." Why?
Positive ions do NOT lower the negative ion generation efficiency BUT lower the negative ion count by neutralization. It is ideal if positive ions are not generated at all because not only do they have negative effects on the human body but also they neutralize negative ions to lower the negative ion count. (Negative ions are no longer negatively charged once neutralized.)
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Q.14 - Does tourmaline has an EMI reduction effect?
Some tourmaline products have the effect but it has not been elucidated how tourmaline works.
Q.15 - Does tourmaline generate hydrogen gas in water?
According to some experiments, tourmaline generates a very little amount of hydrogen.
Q.16 - Please explain the details about corona discharging.
Corona discharging is a phenomenon where light is emitted and very little current flows between a sharp metal electrode and a flat electrode when high voltage is applied between the electrodes. It is categorized into AC and RF corona discharging depending on the voltage applied to the electrodes.

Single corona discharging uses one electrode, while bipolar corona discharging uses both electrodes to ionize the air. The air is ionized when electrons move between the electrodes. Many negative ion generators utilize this characteristic.
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Q.17 - I found a negative ion generator which claims to generate 3,500,000 (pcs/cc). Does this mean it generates this amount of negative ions every second?
It is not the amount of negative ions generated per second but that detected at a moment. It would be a huge amount if the number of negative ions generated per second were possibly counted.
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Q.18 - Tourmaline has many color variations. Do effects vary depending on the color?
It is said that the performance of tourmaline as "Electronic Stone" is not determined by the color but by the hardness of the tourmaline stone and the length of the growth line of the crystal.
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Q.19 - I heard that some negative ion generators produce ozone. Is there a safety standard?
The safety standard set by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is 0.1ppm or less. Some conditions apply but these levels of ozone concentration are said to be not harmful for the human body in working areas. 0.1ppm of ozone can be detected by the sense of smell.
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Q.20 - How does tourmaline make water tasty?
It is said that a small amount of metal ingredients (minerals) contained in tourmaline dissolves in water.
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Q.21 - I have been using a negative ion generator but I cannot find an effect. How can I make sure that it is working?
It depends on the person. If your generator is generating a certain amount of negative ions it will "remove cigarette smoke". If not, it is generating a very small amount of negative ions, at most. This is a way you can make sure if it is working effectively without using an ion counter.
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Q.22 - Why do negative ion generators generate far more negative ions than found naturally in the air (e.g. waterfall)?
Generally, the ion count detected at the blow off point is shown in the specification and it decreases as you go further away from the generator. Thus, negative ions detected at a certain distance away may be or may not be more than those found around the basin of a waterfall.
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Q.23 - Does wood charcoal generate as many negative ions as a waterfall?
Technically, it is almost impossible because wood charcoal generates negative ions only when external force is applied to it.
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Q.24 - Are sizes of electronically generated negative ions different from those generated by splashing water? Which ions have more positive effects on the human body?
It should be determined based on clinical tests. Theoritically, we are not sure but some studies report that electronically generated ions are smaller and small ions are said to have more positive effects on the human body but it does not mean electronically generated ions always have better effects.
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Q.25 - Does tourmaline placed in my room produce a negative ion effect and make me feel relaxed?
You cannot enjoy relaxation effects because tourmaline generates a very little amount of negative ions when pressure or heat is not applied to it.

You need to stimulate the tourmaline by applying pressure to it and stay within 20-30cm from it, otherwise negative ions will not work on you.
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Q.26 - I was recommended a negative ion generator which generates 2,000,000(pcs/cc) negative ions. Is it good for home use?
You have to consider not only the distance from the generator where 2,000,000(pcs/cc) negative ions can be detected but also how the ion count decreases as you go further away from the generator.
(It is possible that 2,000,000 is detected at the blow off point.)

If negative ions do not reach you, the generator is just wasting electricity.
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Q.27 - How are negative ions generated by the electron radiation method?
This method, which is also known as the pulse discharging method, has a negative discharge electrode needle only. High Voltage Pulse* is added to the electrode to generate electrons.

These electrons are dispersed towards the floating capacitor and collide with oxygen molecules to ionize the oxygen.

Unlike corona discharging, this method does not cause ionization near the discharge electrode because the high voltage pulse has a smaller energy than that of the DC discharging method. No ozone is produced due to the smaller energy.

*Electric current which flows only for a second.

Reference: Encyclopedia of applications of air negative ion (co-authored by Tomoo Ryushi and Hisao Sasaki, supervised by Japan Society of Indoor Environment and Health)
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Q.28 - There is a ceramic product which claims to improve the fuel efficiency of cars. Does this really work?
There are ceramic products which improve the fuel efficiency and I have seen some. However, it depends on the car and driving conditions. We do not know how ceramic works.
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Q.29 - What is the difference between clustered ions, which Sharp and some other manufacturers claim, and negative ions? The clustered ones seem to work better.
The main difference is that clustered ions contain positive ions. The clustered ions seem to work better because viruses and bacilli are reduced. An ion counter can detect both positive and negative ions simultaneously. It is said it is possible to adjust the balance of both ions.
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Q.30 - My generator employs the Lenard method. Is the residual chlorine contained in tap water harmful?
If the water is not stale, there should be no problem because no tap water contains chlorine which exceeds the standard level and the density of chlorine drastically falls once the water is splashed.
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Q.31 - Why do I need a negative ion air purifier?
It not only purifies the air but also helps you to enjoy negative ion effects. A negative ion air purifier generates far more negative ions than found naturally in the air.
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Q.32 - What is the difference between a negative ion air purifier and a standard air purifier?
A negative ion air purifier generates negative ions. The ions combine with particles and fall onto the floor to remove them from the air. A standard air purifier intakes the air using a fan and the air is purified when it passes through the filter(s). Negative ions not only purify the air but can also produce positive effects on the body.
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Q.33 - Do negative ion products help control the degree of humidity in the air?
Negative ions can lower humidity but cannot control it.
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Q.34 - Where should I put my negative ion generator for optimum effect?
Negative ions can be absorbed when placed close to the floor/wall/desk/table/ceiling or other objects. Please refer to "Where should I install it?".
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Q.35 - Am I going to see a significant difference on my electric bill if I run a negative ion generator for 24/7?
It is negligible because our negative ion generators consume less than 10W.
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Q.36 - Is there an organization that offers a negative ion measurement service?
If you need fairly accurate negative ion count data, we can help you!

The Japan Association of Ion Research and Application offers a highly accurate and reliable measurement service. They issue a certificate if your product generates more than a certain amount of ions.
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Q.37 - I found a shower head which claims to generate negative ions. Does it really generate ions?
It generates negative ions due to the Lenard's effect. The higher the water pressure is, the more it generates negative ions up to a certain pressure level.
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Q.38 - I am looking for a highly accurate ion counter. What are important factors to choose a good one?
Here are some important factors.
  • The (cylindrical or parallel flat plate) detector has a large volume.
  • The detector is highly insulative.
  • The detector has a stable electrical impedance.
  • The flow rate of the air suction fan is large and stable.
  • The counter is designed so that its performance is not affected by air flow, static electricity or other ambient conditions.
  • The counter conforms to the JIS standard (JIS B9929). (*)
* Ion count data measured by an ion counter which conforms to JIS standard can assure your customer that the data is reliable. We have a highly accurate ion counter which meets this standard.
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Q.39 - What is an ion ore? I heard it works for psoriasis.
We are not sure what an ion ore is. However, many of our customers make use of our tourmaline ores.
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Q.40 - How does a "negative ion counter for ores" work?
It detects radiation emitted by ores and converts it to the negative ion count. It is assumed that an amount of negative ions increases in proportion to a dose of radiation.

Air Ion Counter for Ore COM-3010 PROA negative ion counter for ores is great for product promotion where you need to convince potential customers visually because it provides stable ion count data which is not affected by air flow.

Air Ion Counter IC-1000A negative ion counter, which is not designed for ores, can be affected by air flow because it sucks the air and detects electricity which ions possess, while a negative ion counter for ores uses the GM (Geiger-Müller) tube to detect radiation.

You can refer to an ion counter for ores.

A negative ion counter for ores does NOT work when radiation is not emitted.
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Q.41 - How are negative ion counters classified?
Negative ion counters are classified by the detector and measurement accuracy. You can refer to Classification of ion counters.
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Q.42 - What are important factors to consider when choosing a negative ion counter?
You need to consider if the type of the detector, detectable ions and maximum measurement range meet your requirements. Some negative ion counters can detect small, medium or large ions only. You can refer to How to choose the best negative ion counter.
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Contents of: Negative Ion FAQ
Contents of: Theory (Negative ion & Tourmaline)
· Negative Ion Generators
· Ion Counter
· Tourmaline Sheet
· Tourmaline Stones Powder
· Necklace
· Bracelet
· Bath Products
· Supporter
· Negative Ion Clothing
· Tourmaline Bedding
· Girdle
· Pet Supplies
· Home remedies for stiff neck
· Negative Ion Accessories
· Cosmetics

· Tourmaline Products
What is a negative ion? (13)
What is tourmaline? (7)
Tourmaline explorer (11)
Negative Ion FAQ (140)
Ideal amount of negative ions (1)
Actual negative and positive ion measurements featured in literature and media (1)
Learn more about negative ions (25)
How to choose the best negative ion generator (5)
How to choose the right negative ion products (9)
Misunderstanding about negative ions (10)
Theory of Air Ion (14)
Negative ion effects reported in medical literature (13)
Lenard effect (2)
Negative ion counter comparison chart (2)
Corporate customers (15)
Users Testimonials
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Specialised shop for negative ion products, Ion Trading Universal Plan Co., Ltd.
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