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Observation of the pyroelectric effect

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Observation of the pyroelectric effect

The relations between the thermal and pyroelectric phenomena were made clear by research (4) conducted by Noya, Wilson and Canton in 1750-1770.
Hauy categorized crystals and completed "Traité de Minéralogie" (5) in 1801. He concluded that some crystals cause the pyroelectric phenomena (6).

Becquerel, Forbes and Hankel successfully measured electric charge generated by the pyroelectric effect using a potentiometer (7). Becquerel discovered that temperature changes generate electric charge in 1828. Forbes improved a torsion potentiometer and verified Becquerel's reserach result in 1836. Hankel conducted an experiment using a potentiometer in 1848 and published a lot of papers on pyroelectricity.

Electric charge generated by the pyroelectric effect had been measured but the relations with temperature had not been expressed in formulas.

(4) Lang,S.B.,1974, Sourcebook of Pyroelectricity, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers,pp106-116
(5) Haüy,R.J.,1801,Traite de Mineralogie
(6) Lang,S.B.,1974, Sourcebook of Pyroelectricity, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers,p116-117
(7) Lang,S.B.,1974, Sourcebook of Pyroelectricity, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers,p119-123

[Please note]
There is sparse information about research history of the pyroelectricity/piezoelectricity effects caused by tourmaline. We refer to and quote from this literature as the events are presented in chronological order.
The history of Pyro-Piezoelectricity in the Eighteenth and the Nineteenth Century (Japanese version only)
·Journal Title: Papers of Technical Meeting on History of Electrical Engineering, IEE Japan(2000)
Author: Masaharu Nemoto
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The pyroelectric phenomena expressed in formulas
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