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Negative ion products and materials
Q.01 - Does the negative ion count continue to rise as the negative ion generator continues to generate negative ions?
It does not continue to rise forever because the negative ions are neutralized by positive ions or absorbed by tiny particles such as dust and water droplets in the air.
Q.03 - I measured a tourmaline product but no negative ion was detected. Why?
Tourmaline generates negative ions when external force is applied to it or when temperature changes. You need to stimulate the tourmaline product, otherwise it does not generate negative ions.
Q.08 - Is there any relation between the distance from the negative ion generator and the measured density?
According to "Theory and practice of air ion" (co-authored by Kimura/Taniguchi), negative ion density is in inverse proportion to the square of the distance. This means it drastically decreases as you go further away.
Of course, it can be affected by positive ion density, dust in the air and other factors.
Q.09 - What are the differences between tourmaline and other ores which generate negative ions?
You cannot simply compare tourmaline with other ores but some ores generate more negative ions than tourmaline does.
However, some of these ores emit gamma rays which exceed the natural level, so you have to consider how the rays affect your body during the long term use. Tourmaline does not emit such harmful rays which exceed safety levels.
Q.10 - What are the differences between Tourmaline and Monazite which emits radiation rays?
Monazite contains thorium and uranium which are radioactive substances and it emits gamma rays. The gamma rays collide with molecules in the air to form negative ions. Tourmaline does not emit harmful rays which exceed safety levels. It is believed that tourmaline generates negative ions due to the piezoelectric or pyroelectric effect caused by the distorted crystallographic structure. Thus, negative ions are generated in different ways.
Q.16 - Please explain the details about corona discharging.
Corona discharging is a phenomenon where light is emitted and very little current flows between a sharp metal electrode and a flat electrode when high voltage is applied between the electrodes. It is categorized into AC and RF corona discharging depending on the voltage applied to the electrodes.
Single corona discharging uses one electrode, while bipolar corona discharging uses both electrodes to ionize the air. The air is ionized when electrons move between the electrodes. Many negative ion generators utilize this characteristic.
Q.17 - I found a negative ion generator which claims to generate 3,500,000 (pcs/cc). Does this mean it generates this amount of negative ions every second?
It is not the amount of negative ions generated per second but that detected at a moment. It would be a huge amount if the number of negative ions generated per second were possibly counted.
Q.19 - I heard that some negative ion generators produce ozone. Is there a safety standard?
The safety standard set by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is 0.1ppm or less. Some conditions apply but these levels of ozone concentration are said to be not harmful for the human body in working areas. 0.1ppm of ozone can be detected by the sense of smell.
Q.22 - Why do negative ion generators generate far more negative ions than found naturally in the air (e.g. waterfall)?
Generally, the ion count detected at the blow off point is shown in the specification and it decreases as you go further away from the generator. Thus, negative ions detected at a certain distance away may be or may not be more than those found around the basin of a waterfall.
Q.24 - Are sizes of electronically generated negative ions different from those generated by splashing water? Which ions have more positive effects on the human body?
It should be determined based on clinical tests. Theoritically, we are not sure but some studies report that electronically generated ions are smaller and small ions are said to have more positive effects on the human body but it does not mean electronically generated ions always have better effects.
Q.25 - Does tourmaline placed in my room produce a negative ion effect and make me feel relaxed?
You cannot enjoy relaxation effects because tourmaline generates a very little amount of negative ions when pressure or heat is not applied to it.
You need to stimulate the tourmaline by applying pressure to it and stay within 20-30cm from it, otherwise negative ions will not work on you.
Q.26 - I was recommended a negative ion generator which generates 2,000,000(pcs/cc) negative ions. Is it good for home use?
You have to consider not only the distance from the generator where 2,000,000(pcs/cc) negative ions can be detected but also how the ion count decreases as you go further away from the generator.
(It is possible that 2,000,000 is detected at the blow off point.)
If negative ions do not reach you, the generator is just wasting electricity.
Q.27 - How are negative ions generated by the electron radiation method?
This method, which is also known as the pulse discharging method, has a negative discharge electrode needle only. High Voltage Pulse* is added to the electrode to generate electrons.
These electrons are dispersed towards the floating capacitor and collide with oxygen molecules to ionize the oxygen.
Unlike corona discharging, this method does not cause ionization near the discharge electrode because the high voltage pulse has a smaller energy than that of the DC discharging method. No ozone is produced due to the smaller energy.
*Electric current which flows only for a second.
Reference: Encyclopedia of applications of air negative ion (co-authored by Tomoo Ryushi and Hisao Sasaki, supervised by Japan Society of Indoor Environment and Health)
Q.36 - Is there an organization that offers a negative ion measurement service?
The Japan Association of Ion Research and Application offers a highly accurate and reliable measurement service. They issue a certificate if your product generates more than a certain amount of ions.
Q.39 - What is an ion ore? I heard it works for psoriasis.
We are not sure what an ion ore is. However, many of our customers make use of our tourmaline ores.
Q.40 - How does a "negative ion counter for ores" work?
It detects radiation emitted by ores and converts it to the negative ion count. It is assumed that an amount of negative ions increases in proportion to a dose of radiation.
A negative ion counter for ores is great for product promotion where you need to convince potential customers visually because it provides stable ion count data which is not affected by air flow.
A negative ion counter, which is not designed for ores, can be affected by air flow because it sucks the air and detects electricity which ions possess, while a negative ion counter for ores uses the GM (Geiger-Müller) tube to detect radiation.
You can refer to an ion counter for ores.
A negative ion counter for ores does NOT work when radiation is not emitted.
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Universal Plan Co., Ltd.
107 Tachikawa-Lumiere, 3-5-1, Ichiban-cho, Tachikawa-city,
Tokyo, 190-0033, Japan
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